Please read chapter 9 in the attached book . Include page number in every in-tex
Please read chapter 9 in the attached book . Include page number in every in-text citation. The book is attached. Please reply to the following: It is argued that in the intelligence process that once intelligence is given to policy makers the process is complete. However, this cannot be true due to the fact that policy makers play a vital role in the intelligence process. The structure of the U.S. National security process are the President, the departments, the State Department and the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Security Council (NSC) staff, the IC, and Congress. (Lowenthal, 2019, p.253) In the intelligence community the interactions between the president and bureaucracy is conflicting. Both sides debate a lot “between the president’s interests and those of the bureaucracy.” (Lowenthal, 2019, p.253) Often times they’re either working together or bumping heads. The inconsistency between the two can be based on the bureaucracy always trying to try and outlast the president rather than collaborating. The DOD focus is to make sure that we have “a military capability sufficient to deter hostile nations from using force.” (Lowenthal, 2019, p.253) Furthermore, if that is unsuccessful the DOD tries to bring a large number of force to get rid of conflict quickly. The DHS goal is to prevent any new terrorist attacks from occurring. While doing so, the DHS serves as the bridge “between the federal government and state and local law enforcement agencies on domestic security issues.” (Lowenthal, 2019, p.254) The NSC is important because not only does it have to report back to the national security advisor but it passes on the president wishes to the policy and intelligence communities. To achieve these day to day activities the NSC must have a strong connection with all of these entities. Policy makers tend to have a shaky relationship with the intelligence community based on disagreements. Policy makers have issues with intelligence because they don’t “view intelligence in the same way as those who are producing it.” (Lowenthal, 2019, p.257) Then the relationship between new administrations and intelligence showed that there isn’t much collaboration but instead kept secrets. A former deputy at the DCI stated that “we sometimes know more about foreign governments than we do about our own government” which shows the secrecy and distance between the two. The relationship between policy makers and the intelligence community depends on the duration of the policy makers in office. In the beginning, policy makers tend to be generous, impressed, and accepting of the intelligence they receive. However, the longer the tenure policy makers become more bossy and demanding. This is due to them having higher expectations. Another issue that affects the interactions between policy makers and the intelligence community is that policy makers do not keep intelligence up to date below the most senior levels. This results in making the role of intelligence more difficult but also can lead to resentment between everyone involved which can backfire completely. It is often forgotten that the “IC exists to support the policymaker.” (Gookins, 2008, p.65) Member of the IC “ work as advisors who provide analysis of relevant information.” (Gookins, 2008, p.66) This intelligence obtained is based off policy requirements and stated needs. The interaction between the two is detrimental which is why it must be emphasized that the two collaborate and communicate efficiently to get out the best intelligence possible. Please reply to the following: The nature of the connection between the Intelligence Community (IC) and policymakers is that they play a significant role in policy-making decisions. It is the job of the National Security Council (NSC) to advise the president on national security and foreign policy matters (Intel, 2022). The establishment of foreign, internal, and national strategic relationships is a critical component of the process. Furthermore, policymakers are aware that the intelligence community may be called upon to carry out specific kinds of operations. Again, the political leadership's willingness to employ this capability, as well as the exact types of operations that are regarded as appropriate, varies from one country to the next (Lowenthal, p 255, 2019). The president and the president's top aides, for example, are influential policymakers who make significant judgments. When it comes to the presidency and senior political appointees in an administration, success is defined as the advancement of their agenda (Lowenthal, p. 257). The President and his team of policymakers are completely reliant on the important and critical classified information provided by the intelligence agency to carry out their daily operations. They make decisions based on this knowledge, and they supply the appropriate actions to follow each order in an effective manner.

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